lunes, 5 de octubre de 2020

Red Wine Aging by Different Micro-Oxygenation Systems and Oak Wood—Effects on Anthocyanins, Copigmentation and Color Evolution


by  Rosario Sánchez-Gómez, Maria del Alamo-Sanza, Ana María Martínez-Gil and Ignacio Nevares

 Processes 2020, 8(10), 1250;

 The micro-oxygenation (MOX) of aged wine in contact with pieces of wood is a technique widely used for aging wines as an alternative to barrels. The available range of passive MOX systems is very wide and offers a behavior closer to that of barrels because it uses materials with a similar permeability to oxygen. The aim of this work has been to age the same red wine for 6 months using the main passive MOX systems and compare them with the classic MOX in stainless steel tanks and with barrels as a reference, in order to evaluate phenolic composition and establish its influence. The quantity and the way in which oxygen is incorporated into wine have been found to determine its evolution and final properties. Wine from barrels could be distinguished throughout the aging period since a better level of individualized anthocyanins was maintained, whereas stainless steel + MOX and PMDS (polydimethylsiloxane) wines presented more bluish hues.

martes, 21 de julio de 2020

Artificial Intelligence Methods for Constructing Wine Barrels with a Controlled Oxygen Transmission Rate

It is not only important to classify the staves by their OTR, but also to select them to build a barrel with controlled OTR

Molecules 2020, 25(14), 3312;

Oxygen is an important factor in the wine aging process, and the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) is the parameter of the wood that reflects its oxygen permeation. OTR has not been considered in the cooperage industry yet; however, recent studies proposed a nondestructive method for estimating the OTR of barrel staves, but an efficient method to combine these staves to build barrels with a desired OTR is needed to implement it in the industry. This article proposes artificial intelligence methods for selecting staves for the construction of barrel heads or bodies with a desired target OTR. Genetic algorithms were used to implement these methods in consideration of the known OTR of the staves and the geometry of the wine barrels. The proposed methods were evaluated in several scenarios: homogenizing the OTR of the actual constructed barrels, constructing low-OTR and high-OTR barrels based on a preclassification of the staves and implementing the proposed method in real cooperage conditions. The results of these experiments suggest the suitability of the proposed methods for their implementation in a cooperage in order to build controlled OTR barrels.

This paper published in Molecules belongs to the:

Special Issue "Alcoholic Beverages Aging Technologies"

domingo, 7 de junio de 2020

It is now possible to find out how the amount of O2 influences wine barrel aging and later in the bottle thanks to the barrels with controlled oxygenation

Study of the role of oxygen in the evolution of red wine colour under different ageing conditions in barrels and bottles

 Rosario Sánchez-Gómez; Maria del Alamo-Sanza; Víctor Martínez-Martínez and Ignacio Nevares 

  • The variation in the rate of oxygenation during ageing produces different wines.
  • Wines aged with high oxygenation rate showed greater avidity to consume oxygen.
  • Wine colour increase after air saturation is greater with barrel ageing time.
  • Air saturated wine stored for 35 days at 12 °C reproduces 4 months of bottle ageing.
Wine ageing in barrels is conditioned, among other factors, by the amount of oxygen received during this process, which thus impacts its final properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oxygen on wine colour during ageing in barrels and bottles during different times. The use of barrels with different and known rates of oxygenation allows the effect of different oxygenation conditions throughout the process in barrels and its later evolution in bottles. A simulation process of ageing in bottles was used to study the impact of bottling in wines after differing ageing periods in barrels. The study of winés oxygen consumption capacity has been tied to colour modifications during ageing in barrels and bottles. Wines aged in barrels with a high oxygenation rate showed greater avidity to consume oxygen taking less time to consume that available, which is reflected in a greater increase in colour intensity.

Anyone clicking on this link before July 25, 2020 will be taken directly to the final version of this article on ScienceDirect, which they are welcome to read or download. No sign up, registration or fees are required.

martes, 2 de junio de 2020

Once we can build barrels with different OTR, what effects does it have on the wine?

Volatile composition of oak wood from different customised oxygenation wine barrels: Effect on red wine

Rosario Sánchez-Gómez; Maria del Alamo-Sanza e IgnacioNevares
Food Chemistry
Volume 329, 1 November 2020, 127181

Q. petraea volatile composition is related to the oxygen transfer rate (OTR)
•Toasting process affect differently to staves from Q. petraea with low or high OTR.
•Low-OTR staves showed higher content in phenolic aldehydes and furanic compounds.
•High-OTR staves had higher content in some volatile phenols, aldehydes and lactones.
•Red wines aged for three months in high-OTR and low-OTR barrels were different.

The compounds that the wood releases to the wine and the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) of the barrel define the final wine. The new possibility of choosing the OTR of the barrel allows the winemaker to globally control the ageing process. The aim of this work was to study the volatile composition of woods classified according to their OTR, which are used to build barrels for wine ageing. The results showed that volatile composition differs depending on wood OTR and the temperature reached during toasting. On the toasted side of the stave in contact with the wine, low OTR wood had a statistically higher content in furan compounds (5-hydroxymethylfurfural, furfural and 5-methylfurfural), acetovanillone and phenolic aldehydes (vanillin and syringaldehyde), while 4-ethylguaiacol and trans-β-methyl-γ-octalactone were significantly higher in staves with a high OTR. The same red wine aged first for three months in high and low oxygenation barrels presents different characteristics.

Anyone clicking on this link before July 22, 2020 will be taken directly to the final version of your article on ScienceDirect, which they are welcome to read or download. No sign up, registration or fees are required.

miércoles, 25 de marzo de 2020

La barrica de roble como recipiente activo

Una revisión crítica de los conocimientos pasados y presentes

Enoviticultura nº 63 marzo/abril 2020

I. Nevares y M. del Álamo–Sanza


Este trabajo revisa el papel de la barrica de roble como recipiente activo para la maduración del vino. Se presentan referencias destacando aspectos previamente establecidos sobre los procesos que suceden en la barrica y que aún no han sido demostrados. Los nuevos hallazgos recientemente publicados son determinantes para proponer cómo funciona la barrica cuando envejece al vino.
En este trabajo se detallan los principales factores que afectan a la capacidad de intercambio gaseoso de la barrica con el exterior, como son la aparición de depresión en su interior, formación de un espacio de cabeza, efecto de la anatomía de la madera, diferentes vías de entrada de oxígeno, papel de la humedad de la madera y de sus elagitaninos solubles, así como el efecto del tostado de la madera en tonelería. Finalmente, se ofrece una hipótesis sobre el funcionamiento de la barrica como un recipiente activo que determina la interacción vino–barrica

Palabras clave: Barricas, OTR, Oxígeno, Madera de roble, Elagitaninos.

Este trabajo se publicó originalmente en: Maria del Alamo–Sanza & Ignacio Nevares (2017): Oak wine barrel as an active vessel: A critical review of past and current knowledge, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 58:16, 2711–2726, DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2017.1330250, (

martes, 24 de marzo de 2020

Alternative Woods in Enology

Characterization of Tannin and Low Molecular Weight Phenol Compounds with Respect to Traditional Oak Woods. A Review

by Ana Martínez-Gil, Maria del Alamo-Sanza*, Rosario Sánchez-Gómez and Ignacio Nevares*


Wood is one of the most highly valued materials in enology since the chemical composition and sensorial properties of wine change significantly when in contact with it. The need for wood in cooperage and the concern of enologists in their search for new materials to endow their wines with a special personality has generated interest in the use of other Quercus genus materials different from the traditional ones (Q. petraea, Q. robur and Q. alba) and even other wood genera. Thereby, species from same genera such as Q. pyrenaica Willd., Q. faginea Lam., Q. humboldtti Bonpl., Q. oocarpa Liebm., Q. stellata Wangenh, Q. frainetto Ten., Q. lyrata Walt., Q. bicolor Willd. and other genera such as Castanea sativa Mill. (chestnut), Robinia pseudoacacia L. (false acacia), Prunus avium L. and P. cereaus L. (cherry), Fraxinus excelsior L. (European ash) and F. americana L. (American ash) have been studied with the aim of discovering whether they could be a new reservoir of wood for cooperage. This review aims to summarize the characterization of tannin and low molecular weight phenol compositions of these alternative woods for enology in their different cooperage stages and compare them to traditional oak woods, as both are essential to proposing their use in cooperage for aging wine.

sábado, 11 de enero de 2020

Si es posible!! Hemos Construido Barricas con diferente OTR

Customized oxygenation barrels as a new strategy for controlled wine aging

S.Prat-García; I.Nevares; V.Martínez-Martínez y M.del Alamo-Sanza

The process of aging red wines in barrels is a common practice that aims to improve the quality of the wine. Oxygen, together with the compounds released by the oak wood, is responsible for this improvement through interaction with the wine compounds during the process. Wood as a natural product presents a series of highly significant discontinuities in its characteristics, not only between trees of the same species, but even between different areas of the same log. It is not surprising that, despite the homogenization of the characteristics of the wood due to the number of staves in a barrel (around 30 pieces), barrels made from the same batch of wood show very different behavior when aging the same wine. This work presents the results of applying a new way of classifying wood in cooperage by means of image analysis of the staves, based on its anatomical characteristics besides grain and handling of the staves, in order to achieve the production of barrels with a desired oxygen transfer rate (OTR) potential and also with great homogeneity between manufacturing batches. The two batches of barrels built with high and low OTR proved to be very homogeneous and the oxygen dosage of the high OTR barrels was more than twice that of the low OTR barrels, which confirmed the success of the system developed.

El proceso de envejecimiento del vino tinto en barrica es una práctica común que tiene como objetivo mejorar la calidad del vino. El oxígeno, junto con los compuestos liberados por la madera de roble, es el responsable de esta mejora a través de la interacción con los compuestos del vino durante el proceso. La madera como producto natural presenta una serie de discontinuidades muy significativas en sus características, no sólo entre árboles de la misma especie, sino incluso entre diferentes áreas de un mismo tronco. No es de extrañar que, a pesar de la homogeneización de las características de la madera debido al número de duelas en una barrica (alrededor de 30 piezas), las barricas de un mismo lote de madera muestren un comportamiento muy diferente al envejecer un mismo vino. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de la aplicación de una nueva forma de clasificación de la madera en tonelería mediante el análisis de imagen de las duelas, basada en sus características anatómicas además del grano y manejo de las duelas, con el fin de conseguir una producción de barricas con un potencial de tasa de transferencia de oxígeno (OTR) deseado y también con una gran homogeneidad entre lotes de fabricación. Los dos lotes de barricas construidas con OTR alto y bajo resultaron ser muy homogéneos y la dosificación de oxígeno de las barricas con OTR alto fue más del doble que la de las barricas con OTR bajo, lo que confirmó el éxito del sistema desarrollado.